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     df5fkfng

     kf]v/L, tfn, tn}of, 3f]n, s]h tyf wfgv]tdf s]xL Joj:yfkg k|ljlwx¿ ckgfO df5f kfng ug{ ;lsG5 . o; ;DaGwL cfjZos k|fljlws hfgsf/L lhNnf s[lif ljsf; sfof{nox¿, dT:o ljsf; s]Gb|x¿, /fli6«o k|fs[lts tyf s[lqd hnf;o dT:o lasf; sfoqmd, s]Gb|Lo dT:o k|of]uzfnf / dT:o ljsf; lgb]{zgfnoaf6 k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 . xfn;Ddsf] cg';Gwfg tyf cWoog sfo{af6 g]kfndf !*% hftsf df5f kfOPsf] yfxf ePsf] 5 tfklg xfn s[ifs÷Aoj;foLx¿n] df5fkfngdf k|of]u ul/Psf ;ft hftsf ljsf;] df5fx¿ dWo] # :j]bzL tyf $ ljb]zL hftsf df5fx¿ lgDgfg';f/ 5g\ .

    v  :jb]zL df5fx¿M /x', g}gL tyf efs'/

    v  ljb]zL sfk{ hftsf df5fx¿M l;Ne/ sfk{, ljux]8 sfk{, u|f; sfk{ tyf sdg sfk{       cGo ljb]zL hftsf df5fx¿M k'lG6o;, l6nflkof, k+uf;Lo; / /]Gaf]6«fp6 .

    v  ;f}Gb{o df5f -/Lg df5f_sf hftx¿M sf]O{ sfk{ ljsf;] hftsf df5fsf ljz]iftfx¿

    !=

    Gofgf] xfjfkfgLdf 5f]6f] ;dodf l56f] a9\g] .

    @=

    /f]uAofwL sd nfUg] tyf sd clS;hgdf klg afFRg ;Sg] .

    #=

    k|of{Kt dfqfdf kf]yL df5faf6 aRrf lbg ;Sg] / rfF8} kl/kSj eO{ k|hgg\ sfo{df k|of]u x'g ;Sg] .

    $=

    :yfgLo JolQmx¿n] ¿rfpg] .

    %=

    kf]v/Ldf pTkfbg x'g] k|fs[lts tyf s[lqd cfxf/f vfP/ afRg ;Sg] .

    Dff5f dfg]{ tl/sfdf k|ltaGw u/LPsf a'+bfx¿

    qm= ;=

    k|ltalGwt lqmofsnfk

    b08 hl/jfgf

    !

    laikmf]6s kbf{y k|of]u u/]df

     lauf] adf]lhdsf] Ifltk"tL{ e/fO ?= %)))÷– ;Dd hl/jfgf x'g]

    @

    ljB'tLo k|lqmofaf6 df5f df/]df

    #

    laifflb k|of]u u/L df5f df/]df

    k+uf;Lo; df5fkfng k|ljlw

    k+uf;Lo; df5f -Pangasius hypophthalius_ tfhf kfgLdf x's{g], l56f] a9\g] / a9L tf}nsf] x'g] ePsf]n] of] df5fsf] pTkfbg dxTjk"0f{ /x]sf]5 . c? sfk{ hftsf df5fnfO{ h:t} k+uf;Lo; hftsf] df5fnfO{ klg kf]v/Ldf bfgf cfxf/f v'jfP/ kfng ug{ ;lsG5 . of] hftsf] df5f Ps hftLo k|ljlwaf6 -Mono Culture_ kfng ug]{ ul/Psf]5 . of] df5f leotgfd / OG8f]g]l;ofsf] lardf kg]{ d]sg gbLsf] -Mekong river _ :yfgLo hflt xf] . k+uf;Lo; df5fsf cGo k|hfltx¿ h:t} Sutchi, river catfish /   Bccourts catfish klg kfNg] ul/Psf] 5 .

    k+uf;Lo; df5fkfng ubf{ lgDg  k|ljlwx¿ ckgfP/ ug{ ;lsG5 .

    != kfgLsf] e/kbf]{ ;|f]t

    @= af9L gcfpg] tyf rf]/L gx'g] 7fpF

    #= kf]v/Lsf] ;fO{hM– ;fdfGotof %– * s¶f

    $= kf]v/Lsf] ulx/fO{ M– !=% –@ dL6/

    %= kfgL ;'sfpg] M– df5f e'/f kf]v/Ldf 5f8\g' cufl8 ! –# xKtf;Dd kfgL ;'sfpg] .

    ^= r'gfsf] k|of]u M– %)) – !))) lsnf] u|fd ÷x]S6/

    &= e'/f 5f]8g] b/ M– %  uf]6f k|lt ju{ld6/

    *= e'/f afFRg] b/ M– *%Ü

    (= kfng cjlw M– ^ dlxgf

    !)= df5f laqmL ;fOh M– ! lsnf]u|fd !!=  FCR M– !=% – !

    Ps ln‹Lo l6nflkof df5fkfng k|ljlw

    l6nflkof df5fsf] pTklQ clk|msf / dWok"j{df ePsf] xf] . l6nflkof df5fsf k|hfltx¿ sl/a &) j6f /x]sf 5g\ . tL dWo] gf} k|hfltsf l6nflkof df5fx¿nfO{ kfng ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . h; dWo] gfOn l6nflkof, df]hflDas l6nflkof / An' l6nflkof d'Vo ?kdf kfng ul/G5 . l6nflkof df5fkfng ubf{ lgDg  k|ljlwx¿ ckgfP/ ug{ ;lsG5 .

    != dn / ;fwf/0f k|of]u ljlw

         e'/f – %)))–@)))) uf]6f ÷x]S6/

         pTkfbg – @))) – *)))) lsnf]u|fd÷x]

    @= bfgf, dn / cfktsflng P/]6/ k|of]u k|ljlw

         e'/f –  !)))) – #)))) uf]6f ÷x]S6/

         pTkfbg – %))) – !)))) lsnf]u|fd÷ x]S6/

    #= k"0f{ ;Gt'lnt bfgf / P/]6/ k|of]u k|ljlw

         e'/f !)))) – #)))) uf]6f ÷ x]S6/

         pTkfbg – *))) – !%))) lsnf]u|fd÷ x]S6/

    $= nuftf/ P/]6/ / cf+l;s kfgL km]g]{ k|ljlw

         e'/f – %)))) – !))))) uf]6f ÷x]S6/

         pTkfbg – @)))) – !))))) lsnf]u|fd÷ x]S6/

    %= auL/x]sf] kfgLdf l6nflkof kfng k|ljlw

         e'/f – &)))) – @))))) uf]6f ÷ x]S6/

         pTkfbg – &))))) – @)))))) lsnf]u|fd÷x]

    ^= bfgf v'jfP/ lkFh8fdf kfng k|ljlw

         e'/f – ^)) uf]6f ÷ 3gld6/

         pTkfbg – %)–#)) lsnf]u|fd÷3gld6/


    s[lif 8fo/L @)&@

    g]kfndf /]Gaf] 6«fp6 df5f (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

     /]Gaf] 6«fp6 lr;f] / ;kmf kfgLdf x's{g] Hofb} dL7f] ljb]zL df5f xf] . of] df5f !–@! l8=;]= ;Ddsf] tfkqmddf hLljt /xG5 . t/ j[l4sf] nflu eg] !%–!* l8=;]= kfgLsf] tfkqmd / & ld=u|f÷ln6/ eGbf a9L clS;hg rflxG5 . kfgLsf] tfkqmd ;/b/ !) l8=;]= eGbf lr;f] x'g] :yfgdf of] df5f l9nf] a9\5 / To:tf] :yfgdf Jofj;flos ¿kdf kfNg kmfObfhgs x'Fb}g . df+;fxf/L ePtfklg of] df5fnfO{ pRr k|f]l6go'Qm bfgf v'jfP/ kfNg ;lsG5 . 6«fpgkfngsf] nflu kfgLsf] lk=Pr= ^=% – *=% / clS;hg * ld=u|f=÷ln6/ /x]sf] kfgLdf pko'Qm dflgG5 . 6«fp6df5f b'O{ lsl;dn] kfng ul/G5 . s_ cf+lzs k|0ffnL v_ k"0f{ k|0ffnL

    klxnf] k|0ffnL cGtu{t ;–;fgf e'/fnfO{ ahf/ laqmL of]Uo ;fOh;Dd x'sf{OG5 eg] bf];|f]df k|hgg\b]lv lnP/ 7"nf] df5f;Dd x'sf{OG5 .

    6«fp6 df5f kfngsf] nflu e'/f x'sf{pg] 6ofÍ, 7"nf] df5f kf]v/L, laqmL of]Uo df5f /fVg] kf]v/L Pj+ bfgf /fVg] e08f/ cflbsf] cfjZostf kb{5 . ;fwf/0ftof ;fgf] e'/f x'sf{pg] kf]v/Lsf] ;fOh !) – !% ju{ ld6/ / laqmL of]Uo df5f /fVg] kf]v/Lsf] ;fOh %) – !%) ju{ dL6/ x'G5 . 7"nf] df5f x'sf{pg] / laqmL of]Uo df5f /fVg] kf]v/Lx¿ @ lsl;daf6 agfpg ;lsG5 .

     -s_ /]vfTds÷nx/]        -v_ ;dfgfGt/ .

    le/fnf] hUuf / kfgLsf] ;|f]t sd ePsf] 7fpFdf nx/] lsl;dsf] kf]v/L agfpg /fd|f] x'G5 . o:tf] lsl;dsf kf]v/Ldf dflyNnf] kf]v/Lx¿df k|of]u eO;s]sf] kfgL k'gM tNnf kf]v/Lx¿df k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . /fd|f] kfgLsf] ;|f]t ePsf] 7fpFdf ;dfgfGt/ lsl;dsf] kf]v/L agfpg pko'Qm x'G5 . o:tf] kf]v/Lx¿df Ps k6s k|of]u eO;s]sf] kfgLnfO{ k'gM k|of]u ul/b}+g . hnfzodf df5fsf] 3gTj slt /fVg] eGg] s'/f kfgLsf] k|jfx, cfotg / u'0fdf lge{/ x'G5 . kfgLsf] k|jfx w]/} l56f] ePdf df5fsf] j[l4 /fd|f] x'Fb}g . csf]{lt/ kfgLsf] k|jfx sd ePdf kf]v/Lsf] lk+wdf w]/} kmf]x/ hDg uO{ clS;hg Go"g x'Fb} hfG5 . To;sf/0f kf]v/Lsf] kfgL x/]s 306fdf k"0f{tof km]g'{ cfjZos kb{5 .


    s[lif 8fo/L @)&@

    df5fdf b]lvPsf /f]ux¿ Pj+ cGo ;d:of tyf ;dfwfgsf pkfox¿

    qm= ;=

    /f]u tyf k/hLjL

    nIf0fx¿

     

    cf}iflw pkrf/

    !=

    O=o"=P;= /f]u

    of] /f]u g]kfndf ljut !( jif{b]lv ;d:ofsf] ¿kdf b]lvPsf] 5 . ;'¿df z/L/df ;]tf] yf]Knf  b]lvG5 . ;f] 7fpFdf sTnf emg{ uO{ vfN8f] ePsf] 3fp b]vf kb{5 . 9f8 / k'R5/sf] glhssf] efudf 3fpx¿ b]lvG5 . hf8f]sf] ;dodf :yfgLo hftsf df5fdf of] /f]u a9L nfUb5 . ljsf;] df5f dWo] /x', g}gL / efs'/fdf dfq of] /f]u nfUb5 .

                   

                  •           

                   

    3/kf]Tg] r'gf !% s]hL÷s6\7fsf] b/n] xfNg], /f]usf] k|sf]k x]/L ! dlxgfsf] cGt/fndf a9Ldf tLg k6s r"gf k|of]u ug]{  . kfgLsf] k|j]zåf/df hfnL /fVg] / h+unL df5f ;a} x6fpg] .

    ;fdfGotof sdg, l;Ne/, ljux]8 / u|f;sfk{df of] /f]usf] k|sf]k gb]lvPsf]n] kf]v/Ldf oL hftsf df5fsf] ;+Vof a9L /fVg] . df5f dfg]{ hfnnfO{ k|of]u ul/;s]kl5 /fd|/L ;'sfP/ dfq k'gM k|of]u ug]{ .

    @=

    l6«sf]l8gf

    of] df5fsf] 5fnf, lun / kv]6fdf cfqmd0f ug]{ Ps sf]lifo afx\o k/hLlj xf] . o;sf] ;+Vof w]/} ePdf df5fsf] e'/f db{5g\ . df5f b'Anf] x'g], kfgLdf lj:tf/} t}/g] / kmf§km'§ ¿kdf b}lgs df5f e'/f db}{ hfg] of] k/hLjLsf] cfqmd0fsf] k|d'v nIf0f xf] .

                  •            •           

                   

    )=@% lk=lk=Pd=sf b/n] 6«fO{Snf]km]g÷l8K6]/]S; /fVg] .

    @% lk=lk=Pd= sf b/n] kmdf{lng -kf]v/Ldf xfNg]_ .

    @–# k|ltztsf] g"gkfgLsf] emf]ndf %–!) ldg]6   8'afpg] .

    )=@%lk=lk=Pd= dfnfsfO{6lu|g k|of]u ug]{ .

    #=

    cf/u'n;

    -df5fsf] h'd|f_

    z/L/sf] s'g} klg efudf nfUg ;Sb5 . o;n] z/L/sf] /ut r':g] ePsf]n] hLpdf 3fp tyf vl6/f b]vf kb{5 .

                   

                   

    @–# k|ltztsf] g"gkfgLsf] emf]ndf %–!) ldg]6 8'afpg] 6«fO{Snf]km]g÷l8K6]/]S; )=@% lk=lk=Pd= k|of]u ug]{ .

    $=

    df5fsf] lkmQ] h'sf -l;:6f]8_

    k]6 km'n]sf] x'G5 . hLp / 9f8 ;'s]sf] x'G5 . 7fpF 7fpFdf 3fpx¿ b]lvG5 .

    •         

    8fO–Pg Jo6fOnl6g cS;fO{8 @%) ld=u|f= k|lt s]hL bfgfdf ld;fP/ # lbg;Dd v'jfpg] .

    %=

    ;]tf] yf]Kn] /f]u

    z/L/sf] aflx/L efudf ;]tf yf]Knf b]vf kb{5g\ . 9f8 / hLpdf 5fnf kftnf] eO{ 3fp b]lvG5 .

    •          •           

    # k|ltzt g'gkfgLsf] emf]ndf #–$ ldg]6 8'afpg] .

    dfnf sfO6lu|g )=! lk=lk=Pd= k|of]u ug]{ .

    ^=

    ufO{/f]8S6fO{n;

    of] df5fsf] 5fnf, lun / kv]6fdf nfUg] afx\o k/hLjL xf] . df5fsf e'/f o;af6 a9L k|efljt x'g] ub{5g\ . df5f e'/f ga9\g], hLp lrnfpg] ePsf]n] lsgf/df 3l;|O{/x]sf] b]lvg], kfgL dfly pk|mg] / df5fsf] rfndf km/s cfpg] o;sf nIf0fx¿  x'g\ .

                   

                   

    )=@% lk=lk=Pd= l8K6]/]S; k|of]u ug]{ . @% lk=lk=Pd= kmdf{lng k|of]u ug]{ .

    122

    s[lif 8fo/L @)&@

    kf]v/Ldf dT:okfng Joj:yfkgdf Wofg lbg'kg]{ s]xL yk dxTjk"0f{ kIfx¿

    qm= ;=

    ;d:ofx¿

    nIf0fx¿

    ;dfwfgsf pkfox¿

    !=

    clS;hgsf]

    sdL

     laxfg 3fd pbfpg\' cl3 kf]v/Lsf df5f kfgLsf] ;txdf cfO{ Kofs Kofs u/]sf] b]lvG5 . kf]v/Ldf a9L emf/kft jf 5xf/L jf abnL ePsf] ;dodf jf a9L dnvfb jf a9L ;+Vofdf df5f nufot cGo hnr/ ePsf] cj:yfdf o:tf] nIf0f b]lvG5 . kfgLdf 3'lnt clS;hgsf] dfqf sd x'g] ;dodf kfgLsf] ;txdf cg'kflts lx;fjn] cGo :yfgdf eGbf a9L clS;hg 3'lnt kfgL pknAw x'g] ePsf]n] o:tf] ;dodf df5fn] ;txdf cfO{ l56f] l56f] d'v afpg] -Kofs Kofs_ u/]sf] nIf0f b]lvG5 .

                  kf]v/Ldf tTsfn aflx/af6 kfgL ykL lbg] .

                  klDkË ;]6 nufP/ kfgL tfg]/ kmf]xf]/f agfO{ ;f]xL kf]v/Ldf v;fNg] .

                  kfgL gwldlng] u/L kf]v/Ldf dflg; k;]/ kfgL rnfpg] jf kf}8L  v]Ng] .

                  Pl/P6/ -kfgL rnfpg] d]lzg_ sf] k|of]u ug]{ .

                  ck/fGx 3fd nfuL ;s]kl5 hfn xfnL a9L df5f lgsfNg] .

                  s]xL ;dosf] nflu kf]v/Ldf df5fnfO{ bfgf / dnvfb glbg] .

    @=

    kf]v/Ldf kfgL

    l56f] ;'Sg]

     ;fwf/0ftof anf}6] df6f]df kf]v/L lgdf{0f ug'{ x'Fb}g . lkFwdf afn'jfsf] dfqfdf a9L ePsf] kf]v/L kfgL l56f] ;'Sb5 / af/Daf/ kfgL yKg'k5{ . o;/L ylkg] kfgL sd dlnnf] x'g] ePsf]n] kf]v/Ldf /x]sf df5fsf] j[l4df sdL cfpF5 .

         aflx/af6 sDtLdf ! lkm6 lrD6\ofO{nf] df6f] lk+wdf yKg] .

         k|To]s jif{ anf}6] kf]v/Lsf] lkFwdf k|z:t uf]a/dn, emf/kft, k/fn, jf  cGo k|f+ufl/s kbfy{ xfNg] ugf{n] qmdzM sd r'lxg] x'G5 .

         lkFwdf Knfli6s la5\ofpg] .

    s/];f kf]v/Ldf df5fkfng p2]Zo¿M s_ PsLs[t afnL k|0ffnLsf] k|ljlw lj:tf/ . v_ k|f0fL k|f]l6gsf] pknAwtf / vfglkgdf ;'wf/ .

    u_ jftfj/0f ;+/If0f / k|b'if0f lgoGq0f .

    sfo{ljlwM s_  %) ju{ ld6/ hldg s/];f kf]v/Lsf] nflu cfjZos kb{5 . v_  3/sf] cufl8 jf k5fl8 kfgLsf] pknAwtf ;|f]t x]/]/ kf]v/L vGg] . u_  ^) ;]=dL= ulx/f] k/]/ l8nsf] df6f] ;DofO{ kf]v/L vGg] .


    s[lif 8fo/L @)&@

    3_

     

    hDdf ^% j6f lkm+u/lnª :6s ug]{ - %% uf]6f sdg sfk{ / !) uf]6f l;Ne/ 

    sfk{ _ .

    ª_

     

    efG;faf6 pla|Psf] vfBj:t' bfgfsf] ¿kdf k|of]u ug]{ .

    r_

     

    k|lt %) ju{ ld6/df @) s]=hL= df5f pTkfbg x'g ;Sb5 .

    5_

     

    kfgLsf] :yfoL ;|f]t x'g' kb{5 / s[ifsn] kz'kfng / t/sf/L afnL nufPsf] x'g' kb{5 .

    h_

     

    hldg cfkm\g} :jfldTjsf] x'g' /fd|f] x'G5 .

    hft cg';f/ df5fsf e'/fx¿ pknAw x'g] ;do / ;|f]tx¿

    qm= ;+=

    df5fsf] lsl;d

    e'/f kfOg]

    ;do

    ;/sf/L ;|f]t s]Gb|x¿

    lghL If]qsf ;|f]t s]Gb|x¿

    !

    sdg sfk{

    kmfNu'0f–j}zfv

    dT:o ljsf; s]Gb|x¿ nxfg, kmQ]k'/, hgsk'/,  x]6f}+8f, e08f/f / s'n]vfgL

    Pu|L lj|8;{ lnld6]8, 6+sLl;g'jf/L, df]/ª, rf}w/L dT:o Xofr/L, km"nsfs§L –^, l;/fxf, d'lvof, zflGt, ld>f, sfhn, lu/Lhf dT:o Xofr/L, hgsk'/ .

    @

    u|f; sfk{

    r}q–h]i7

    #

    l;Ne/ sfk{

    j}zfv–cfiff9

    $

    ljux]8 sfk{

    j}zfv–cfiff9

    %

    /x'

    cfiff9–efb|

    hgsk'/, e}/xjf / wgu9L

    7fs'/ dT:o Xofr/L, hn]Zj/, kbd ljZjf; dT:o x\ofr/L, df]lt;/ –@ ,af/f,  rGb|Lsf dT:okfng kmfd{, /fdk'/ 6f]sgL, af/f, k6]n dT:o Xofr/L, kfnL, gjnk/f;L, d08n dT:o Xofr/L, e}/xjf / u0f]z dT:o Xofr/L, tf}lnxjf .

    ^

    g}gL

    cfiff9–efb|

    kmQ]k'/, hgsk'/, x]6f}+8f / e08f/f

    &

    efs'/

    cfiff9–efb|

    hgsk'/, e}/xjf, wgu9L / dT:o cg';Gwfg s]Gb|, kf]v/f

    *

    6«fp6 df5f e'/f

    r}q–>fj0f

    dT:o cg';Gwfg

    s]Gb|, g'jfsf]6 lqz'nL / 6«fp6 k|hgg\ tyf ljsf;

    s]Gb|, w'Gr], /;'jf

    g'jfsf]6 / /;'jfdf cjl:yt gLlh 6«fp6 k|hgg\ s]Gb|x¿ .

    Dff5fkfng af/] lj:t[t hfgsf/L cfjZos ePdf ljif]z dT:okfng ;+ufnf], dT:okfng >[+vnf

    – !* x]g'[{ xf]nf .

    Dff5f e'/fsf] b//]6   k|mfO{ e'/f – @% k;f÷uf]6f lkm+u/lnª – &% k;f÷uf]6f

    P8efG; lkm+u/lnª – !=%) ?kofF÷uf]6f

    ;f}Gbo{ df5f  -/+uLg df5f _ – @=%) ?kofF÷uf]6f dT:okfngsf] nflu kfgLsf] pko'Qm u'0f:t/ clS;hg – %=) kL=kL= eGbf a9L Pdf]lgof – )=@ kL=kL= eGbf sd lk= Pr= – &–( sf] lardf

    Tffkqmd – @^–#@ l8=;]=


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